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Arranging any group of objects in a specific order requires a key. Chronology - Timetable Key possibilities layering Types of rocks fossils The key must contain something in common with all the pieces to be able to unite them into a common group For example: Modern stratigraphy would be impossible without biostratigraphic [fossil] control…. An explanation of the relative scale highlights events in the growth of geologic science itself; the radiometric scale is a more recent development borrowed from the physical sciences and applied to geologic problems.

If we could shown that the fossils are not accurate indicators of time then the whole system of geological timeline as well as radiometric dates are false. By the index fossils found in the layer. How do you know the age of the fossil? By the layers they are found in. We used to think that coelacanths went extinct around the same time as the dinosaurs, about 65 million years ago. Coelacanths have been traced as far back as 80 million years ago, Crocodiles No change in 90 million years. Coelacanths have been traced as far back as 80 million years ago,.

The squid even contained an ink sac so fresh that the ink could be used to paint a picture. Dinos are supposed to have evolved into birds, however fully formed birds have been found that pre-date dinos. Out of place, that is, compared with the areas, or ranges, shown for them on the geological column. Out-of-Place A million year old fossil squid was discovered that contained a fresh ink sac.

But despite the vast passage of time, experts who unearthed the fossilised remains were able to extract ink from its perfectly-preserved sac and use it to paint a picture of the ancient animal. Living Fossils What is found No change in fossils Many out-of-place fossils How can index fossils be trusted as a true indicator of time?


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  7. On Vancouver Island, just off the west coast of Canada, in the late s, a paleontologist found a sponge, which he called Nucha vancouverensis, claiming it was a new species. Surprisingly, this sponge is virtually identical to one previously found in western New South Wales, Australia, named Nucha naucum, from Middle Cambrian rocks, supposedly million years old.

    The Nucha from Vancouver has greatly extended the range for this particular fossil upward in the geological column. Dinosaurs are claimed to have lived from 65 to million years ago. Dinosaurs are used as a classic proof of evolution. Soft tissue in dinosaur bones.

    Proteins in dinosaur fossils. Red blood cells in dinosaur fossils. DNA in dinosaur fossils. Carbon in dinosaur fossils. Otherwise, the far more reasonable explanation is that the fossils are simply not that old. Are there any assumptions? How accurate are they? The age is a questionable interpretation based on untestable assumptions.

    Further, the value actually selected is chosen to match their naturalistic philosophy. Therefore, dating by this method is at best a hypothesis concerning the age of any rock suite or mineral; it is certainly not a scientific fact! Ngauruhoe, New Zealand Potassium-argon: Stromboli, Italy 8. This age disagreed with the accepted age of fossils found there pigs, elephants and apes. Therefore, the radioisotope age was rejected.

    The same scientists re-dated the tuff at 2. A new skull was later found below the tuff. The skull looked too modern to be older than 2. The tuff was once again dated, this time at 1. A Critique of the Geologic Timescale, , p. Radiometric dating is not reliable and relies on several assumptions that cannot be scientifically demonstrated. But why should this be, if the method were absolute?

    Absolute dating

    If the dates are rejected, the difference can be explained away. Famous because of nearby fossils of an alleged human ancestor. First date potassium-argon gave a date of MYO, but this disagreed with the accepted age of the fossils pigs, elephants and apes and tools , so the date was rejected. The excuse was contamination with excess argon. The same researchers redated the tuff at 2. Example using the principal of superposition: If you found an arrow head in one sedimentary layer of rock and a saber tooth tiger skull in a lower layer of rock, you can use the law of superposition to conclude that the skull is older than the arrow head.

    Absolute dating - Wikipedia

    This describes the actual age of an object or event. The absolute ages of objects from long ago are found by analyzing the chemicals in the object or the rock layers in which they were found.

    Radiometric Dating — This is the most accurate form of dating. Carbon Dating The 14 is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of the atom Most atoms of carbon have 6 protons and 6 neutrons in the nucleus of atom. A very few carbon atoms have a different number of neutrons and are called isotopes. In conclusion, an isotope is an atom of the same element with a different amount of neutrons in the nucleus.

    Carbon is an isotope of carbon and is radioactive. Radioactive describes an element that gives off tiny particles and energy from inside its atom. This means that it tends to give off particles from its nucleus. Above picture show the decay of cacbon to nitrogen The antineutrino will destroy itself and give off energy. The carbon atom changes into an atom of nitrogen, which is not radioactive but stable. This change is called radioactive decay.

    Only about 1 in a 1,,,, trillion carbon atoms are carbon, the majority of the atoms are carbon The dating process compares the ratio of carbon to carbon in an object. All living things contain very small amounts of carbon This carbon is recycled as we live our lives carbon in food is released as carbon dioxide as we burn food for energy. The amount of carbon remains about the same as we live our lives. When an organism dies no more carbon is obtained and the carbon decays to the stable element nitrogen As the carbon decays, the ratio of carbon to carbon in the organic object decreases at a steady rate because the amount of carbon decreases.

    Scientists have figured out that it takes about years for half of the carbon to change to nitrogen Picture of how carbon is renewed or produced on the Earth.

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    Another important radioactive isotope is Uranium which decays into the stable element lead. This method has let scientists to determine the approximate age of the Earth as 4. Below are 3 common radioactive isotopes that are used to date objects.